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  • List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Investigation and Determination of the Evolution Process of Architecture in the Structure of the Tabriz bazaar with emphasis on contextualism
        Prosha Bahrieh sahar tofan شبنم اکبری نامدار
        Contextualism, as an important approach in architecture emphasizes upon the preservation of traces of the past and the differences and the features of each culture and it is rooted in the identity of every nation. The ancient texture of cities carries rich signs of the More
        Contextualism, as an important approach in architecture emphasizes upon the preservation of traces of the past and the differences and the features of each culture and it is rooted in the identity of every nation. The ancient texture of cities carries rich signs of the culture and identity of forebears and Iranian traditional architecture is no exception to this rule, at the same time it’s a rich instance of harmony and co-habitation with environmental characteristics and spatial values. In traditional Iranian cities, bazaar was considered to be a fundamental element so that the city was recognized and appreciated for its bazaar. The Tabriz bazaar arranged in a complete city block has a long antiquity, vastness, functional diversity and architectural values. The current research makes attempt to elucidate and determine contextual factors influencing the Tabriz bazaar at urban (site location, formation and development) and architectural (dispersion of physical elements and function) scales. Therefore, the research questions are explained as follows: first, which contextual factors have been influential in the site location, formation and development of the Tabriz bazaar (Large scale)? Secondly, which contextual factors have been influential in the dispersion of physical elements and functions of the Tabriz bazaar (Intermediate scale)? The methodology of the research is deductive, which is based on the analysis of the content of documents. Thereby, the research attempts to re-read the subject matter and to draw a conclusion through the study of documents, exploration of historical books and logbooks, analysis of maps and old aerial images of Tabriz and the bazaar, as well as analysis of field survey findings of the existing condition of the bazaar. The extraction of contextual factors affecting the formation of the bazaar on the metropolitan scale and architectural programming related to the physical and functional dispersion shows that the formation and development of Tabriz bazaar and its elements over the ages have been influenced by the environmental, cultural, social, political, governmental and economic structure of the city. The effect of the contextual index in terms of the status of the political geography of the city and the economic value of the structural index of bazaar on the formation of necessity characteristic, supply-demand relationship and its manifestation in the form of Tabriz bazaar on large and medium scale has been found to be of more importance. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Dimensional analysis as a method in research on Islamic city
        Bahador Zamani ehsan babaei salanghoch
        The applicability of the qualitative research system and its specific strategies namely grounded theory is worth considering for contributing to the knowledge with the valid scientific theories and doctrines in order to raise the level of awareness and to help predict a More
        The applicability of the qualitative research system and its specific strategies namely grounded theory is worth considering for contributing to the knowledge with the valid scientific theories and doctrines in order to raise the level of awareness and to help predict and solve the existing problems of the urbanity and urban planning particularly in Islamic contexts. Grounded theory as one of the strategies of qualitative method has been developed with various readings in recent decades. Dimensional analysis as one of the readings of the grounded theory, being devised by Schutzman has been applied in various scientific disciplines; however, this method has been less used in urban research. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of this method for research in general and Islamic city research in particular. Accordingly, two questions are asked: What is the process and capability of the dimensional analysis method? To what extent is this method applicable to Islamic city research? The paper is organized into two main sections. In the first section, the background, philosophical foundations and theoretical underpinnings and steps of the dimensional analysis method are discussed taking into consideration the possibilities and capabilities of this method for research. In the second part of the paper, this method is used for a sample study in Islamic urban context. In this section, the concept of Islamic city has been studied by various scholars scrutinizing the various dimensions and methods used to construct this concept and provide an explanatory framework in this regard. The results of this section come up with six distinct models of Islamic city in related texts and narratives, including Islamic habitat (not city) model; timeless city model; physical model; Muslims’ city model; Islamic civilization model; and city-in-Muslims’ territory model. The findings of this study not only emphasize the advantages and usefulness of dimensional analysis for urban research, but it also implies that any use of this method –such as any other quantitative and qualitative methods – requires its own related ontological and epistemological considerations and adaptation in line with the research details particularly its aim/s and question/s. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - An Analysis of the Role of the Great Hosseinieh in the Formation of the Secondary Structure of Zanjan in the Qajar Era and the Its Persistence Causes
        Ahad Nejadebrahimi MohammadJavad Heydari
        The government found more religious convergence with the people in the Qajar era. Because, in addition to the people, the government was also active in constructing religious places, such as Dolat (government) and Nasiriyah Tekyeh in Tehran and Zanjan city. This factor More
        The government found more religious convergence with the people in the Qajar era. Because, in addition to the people, the government was also active in constructing religious places, such as Dolat (government) and Nasiriyah Tekyeh in Tehran and Zanjan city. This factor not only increased the influence of the Shi’i religion and publicized its religious rituals, but, in addition to influencing the physical organization of the city, it paved the way for another structure too. This structure was not defined by physical element such as the main structure. Contrary to the main structure, this structure was a symbolic and semantic that arose as a result of social action. This structure was a result of citizen’s image of mind of the urban spatial sense and identity that the social construction (religious behavior of citizens) has played a major role in its shaping and, contrary to the main structure of the city, has undergone a change. The purpose of this research is to explain the role and influence of the Hosseinieh Azam (great Hosseinieh) in the formation of the secondary structure of Zanjan in the Qajar era. The research method is historical, descriptive and analytical. Documentary and field study method has been used in gathering the required information. Results of this research showed that the construction or development of the great Hosseinieh and the formation of its mourning group in the Qajar era have played an important role in creating the secondary structure of the city of Zanjan. A structure that has persistence to this time. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Reading Spaces Based on Michel Foucault Theory of Power-Space; Case Study of Naghsh e Jahan Square in Safavid Era
        samar haghighi brojeni Seyed Abash Agha Yazdanfar Mostafa Behzadfar
        Space is a multi-dimensional concept that is at once economic, political, semiotic and experiential, and in this sense it is an integral component of social interaction and an indispensable vector for critical theories. After 1980’s knowledge of space has become critica More
        Space is a multi-dimensional concept that is at once economic, political, semiotic and experiential, and in this sense it is an integral component of social interaction and an indispensable vector for critical theories. After 1980’s knowledge of space has become critical to understanding the production and transformation of power relations, and in this regard the built environment is an important concept for any endeavor in social analysis. This paper explores the possibilities for development of social theories of space-power based on the theories of Michelde Foucault, coupled with methods of content analysis of urban spaces.The aim of this article is to explore how political poweris constructed in urban spaces, and how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed. The paper begins by exploring the Foucault theories of power-space to analyse and interpret the relationship between urban space and political power: how political powers implement to shape urban spaces, and improve their authority and legitimacy through spaces, in turn. These strategies can be defined in spatial technologies through founding of spatial structural and functional principles.Grounded on this analythical and interpretative study of Foucault theories of space and power relations, this paper seeks to demonstrate a conceptual framework which can be adapted to urban spaces content analyzing. The achievement of this research is to develop an appendant analysing method to elaborate a tool for the meaning analysis of spaces in architecture and urban design studies. This methodology is applied in a case study sample. The main strategies which are explored in the theoretical-based part of this study are tested in Naghsh e Jahan Squere’, a historic squerein the city of Isfahan, during Safavid era, specially the reign of Shah Abbas. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Analysis of Thoughts of Modernism on the Formation and Change of Urban Streets in Iran and Uzbekistan; Case study of Tehran and Tashkent
        Nazanin Islami Fariba Alborzi Hosein soltanzadeh
        The Qajar period in Iran coincides with the Western Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, which is an important factor in the development of modern and contemporary Architecture and Urban Planning. This means that, the Qajar period is the link between the tra More
        The Qajar period in Iran coincides with the Western Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, which is an important factor in the development of modern and contemporary Architecture and Urban Planning. This means that, the Qajar period is the link between the traditional past and the modern future of Iran, and provides the Context for the emergence of changes in the first two decades of the Pahlavi era. Also, Uzbekistan undergoes Number of Developments in Soviet Modernization Processes during this Era. The Purpose of this Study is to Examine how the Impact of Modern Cultural, Political and Social Progresses on the Urban Streets Evolution in Iran and Uzbekistan during the Qajar and First Pahlavi Eras to Answer these Questions: Have the Modern Cultural, Political and Social Progresses influenced the process of Urban Street Evolution in Iran and Uzbekistan?What is the Structure, Nature and aspects of differences and similarities of Urban Streets Evolution in Iran and Uzbekistan during Qajar and First Pahlavi Eras? This is a Historical-Comparative research with Qualitative approach which uses Documentary Studies. Historical-interpretive research method has been used to collect Historical theoretical bases and Descriptive-Analytical research method has been used to comparison the urban Streets Evolution in Tehran and Tashkent. The Statistical Population includes all streets that underwent Physical and Functional Changes during the Qajar and Fisrt Pahlavi Eras due to Modernist Thoughts and The Sample Population consists of a number of streets that were in the same time frame and have Stylistic Similarities in terms of Physical, Functional, and objective developments. The results of the research show that the Thoughts of modernism in both countries have been manifested in objective, functional and physical dimensions and the physical components have been more influential than the other components. In both countries, street design has been emerged similarly with new components such as the proximity of various functions around the street, increased permeability and visual transparency in the urban street walls and the regular checkered grid of the streets. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The physical-spatial structure analysis of the social classes houses in Oil company town “Abadan” during the boom of the oil industry, with the method of space syntax
        Golzar Yonesi Maryam Armaghan Mohamad Javad Saghafi
        The large consumption of oil for energy has had important implications for urban development and globalization in the twentieth century. One of them was the creation of a company town and, consequently, new physical and spatial forms of housing in them. Much of this has More
        The large consumption of oil for energy has had important implications for urban development and globalization in the twentieth century. One of them was the creation of a company town and, consequently, new physical and spatial forms of housing in them. Much of this has been done by British government, in the exploitation of oil and, consequently, the creation of the Oil Company town. Separated social classes based on social status and the special architecture associated with it are prominent features of the Oil Company town. The aim of this study was to investigate and identify the physical-spatial structure of the allocated spaces to each social class and compare changes in these existing social structures in “Abadan”, Is done by space syntax method.we used the qualitative, descriptive-analytical research method, and finally the logical reasoning based on statistical and quantitative data. Depth map software, in items such as depth, integeration, connectivity,control and distribution, have been used in the selected plans of each class. The results and findings comparatively show the adaptation of the social structure to the architecture structure. In these structures, from the working class to the lesser masters, the structure has moved towards extroversion and fundamental change with its traditional form, and the separation and classification of spaces and the creation of spatial hierarchy, as well as individualism and privacy, in the working class to the bosses, according to the data. Software and analytics have increased step by step, and as of today, existing homes are getting closer. Manuscript profile